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签证延期被拒在美国逾期逗留的后果和注意事项

来源:北美购房网作者:北美购房网时间:2018/12/13

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我们都知道去美国是需要办理护照和签证的。但是有些人会因为签证延期或者被拒而被逗留的美国。如果说这种情况逗留在美国的话,就会有很多需要注意的事情。下面为大家来详细说明一些。

如果 I-94 已经到期、延期还未批复,你的身份是「灰色」

读者 Qi 问道,「在还没有拿到官方正式通知是同意延期还是不同意延期之前,是否可以一直呆在美国?」

  • I-94 到期之后,你的合法身份(legal status)自动结束,不管是否有 pending case。
  • 不过,只要延期尚未批复,USCIS 并不认为你现在是非法停留( unlawful presence);这个概念下面会讲。
  • 或者可以说,在移民局看来,你现在的身份既不合法、也不违法,处于灰色地带。
  • 因为你的合法身份已经结束,即使你有 pending case,理论上来说国土安全部也可以驱逐你(DHS may bring a removal proceeding against you, even if you have an application for extension of status pending)。

USCIS 官网这里这里对此都有说明:

What if I file for an extension of stay on time but USCIS doesn't make a decision before my I–94 expires?

Your lawful nonimmigrant status ends, and you are out of status, when your Form I-94 expires, even if you have timely applied to extend your nonimmigrant status. Generally, as a matter of discretion, USCIS will defer any removal proceedings until after the petition is adjudicated and USCIS decides your request for extension of nonimmigrant status. Nevertheless, DHS may bring a removal proceeding against you, even if you have an application for extension of status pending.

E/H/L 等工作签证,如果延期申请还在「pending」状态,Legal Status 过期之后还可以继续工作最长 240 天。请注意,如果你等到 I-94 到期之后才申请延期,那么你现在已经是 unlawful presence。

在 I-94 过期之前离开美国

不管申请状态如何,你都可以在 I-94 过期之前离开美国。假如你的 I-94 是到3月1日,以下3种选择都合法:

  1. 移民局2月中旬批准了你的申请,但是你因为计划变动已经离开了美国。
  2. 移民局2月中旬拒绝了你的申请,你在3月1日前离开了美国。
  3. 到2月底你的申请还是 pending,你不想冒风险于是在3月1日前离开了美国。

简单地说,你的申请状态并不影响你之前已经批准的合法身份。

逾期逗留的后果

如果延期被拒、但是你如期离开了美国,上面已经说过了:没有关系。反之,如果你的 I-94 过期的时候延期申请还在处理、最后被拒绝了,就会麻烦一些:

  • 自 I-94 过期之后,你停留的每一天都是「逾期滞留」(overstay)。举例来说,你的 I-94 在3月1日到期,而 USCIS 直到5月1日才拒绝你的申请,你从3月1日起的每一天都是 overstay;从5月1日起的每一天都是「非法停留」(unlawful presence)。
  • 申请被拒之后需要立刻离境。当然,国际旅行不是说走就走,就算你愿意航班也不一定有座。一般来说,收到据信以后要尽快定机票安排行程,停留最好不超过2星期。
  • 你的签证自动失效。就算你之前拿的是10年多次往返签证,也需要重新申请。
  • 你以后必须回母国申请签证,不能去第三国(如加拿大)申请。
  • 你再次申请签证可能无法免面签。你应该保留延期申请的收据和拒信,向签证官证明,你在I-94过期之后的大部分时间只是 overstay,并不是 unlawful presence。
  • 若你在申请被拒之后还在美国非法停留很多天,你可能还需要向签证官解释为什么。

什么是 Overstay 和 Unlawful Presence?

上面提到了「逾期逗留」 overstay 和「非法停留」unlawful presence 两个概念。二者的区别在于,unlawful presence 性质更严重、有明确的法律后果

  • 根据 INA section 212(a)(9)(B)(i),非法停留180天以上,3年内禁止入境。
  • 非法停留365天以上,10年内禁止入境(inadmissible)。
  • 然而,案件 pending 期间,即使I-94 过期也只算 overstay,不算 unlawful presence。

以上信息可参考 INA section 212(a)(9)(B)(i) 第13条,Aliens Unlawfully Present。USCIS 官网这里这里的回复也明确说了: [...] you do not accrue "unlawful presence" for purposes of inadmissibility under section 212(a)(9)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, while your extension of status application is pending if it was filed prior to the expiration of your Form I-94.

USCIS 在另一处也有专门解释: As discussed in chapters 40.9.2(b)(2and 40.9.2(b)(3) of the AFM , there are situations in which an alien who is present in an unlawful status nevertheless does not accrue unlawful presence. As a matter of prosecutorial discretion, DHS may permit an alien who is present in the United States unlawfully, but who has pending an application that stops the accrual of unlawful presence, to remain in the United States while that application is pending. In this sense, the alien's remaining can be said to be "authorized." However, the fact that the alien does not accrue unlawful presence does not mean that the alien's presence in the United States is actually lawful.

USCIS 官网甚至举了两个例子来解释

Example 1

An alien is admitted as a nonimmigrant, with a Form I-94 that expires on January 1, 2009. The alien remains in the United States after the Form I-94 expires. The alien's status becomes unlawful, and she begins to accrue unlawful presence, on January 2, 2009. On May 10, 2009, the alien properly files an application for adjustment of status.

The filing of the adjustment application stops the accrual of unlawful presence. But it does not "restore" the alien to a substantively lawful immigration status. She is still amenable to removal as a deportable alien under section 237(a)(1)(C) of the Act because she has remained after the expiration of her nonimmigrant admission.

Example 2

An alien is admitted as a nonimmigrant, with a Form I-94 that expires on January 1, 2009. On October 5, 2008, he properly files an application for adjustment of status. He does not, however, file any application to extend his nonimmigrant stay, which expires on January 1, 2009. The adjustment of status application is still pending on January 2, 2009.

On January 2, 2009, he becomes subject to removal as a deportable alien under section 237(a)(1)(C) of the Act because he has remained after the expiration of his nonimmigrant admission. For purposes of future inadmissibility, however, the pending adjustment application protects him from the accrual of unlawful presence.

因此,只要你在 I-94 过期之前及时提交了延期申请,哪怕 I-94 过期之后你的申请被拒绝了,也不用太担心:你只是 overstay 而已,赶紧买机票回国就行了,不至于3年内 inadmissible。举例来说:

  • 你的 I-94 在3月1日过期,你在1月1日提交了申请,希望延期到9月1日。
  • 移民局8月25日拒绝了你的申请;你收到据信之后,于9月1日离开美国。

因为你的延期申请被拒,所以你3月1日到9月1日都是 overstay;但是你的 unlawful presence 只是8月25-9月1日,远远不足180天,因此不会导致3年内 inadmissible。

已经回国了还没批复怎么算?

Trump 上台之后,USCIS 处理速度明显更慢、很多案件积压,很多人提交申请后一直 pending、甚至申请人已经回国了还没有批复。举例来说,I-94于3月1日到期,原定延期到6月1日;1月1日提交申请之后,case 一直 pending,到6月1日申请人已经按计划回国了,case 还在 pending。这怎么算呢?

根据纽约(房价)的移民律师事务所 The Law Offices of Grinberg & Segal, PLLC 解释(感谢读者 TT 反馈并提供出处),「逾期逗留签证失效」是因为 INA 222(g),有一些例外情形不适用,具体见下表。

逾期逗留是否适用 INA 222(g)
(即签证是否自动作废)

情形 签证作废?
Alien admitted until specified date; maintains status; departs by date specified. 不作废
Alien admitted until specified date; maintains status; departs after date specified. 作废
Alien admitted until specified date; violates status; departs by date specified. 不作废
Alien admitted until specified date; violates status; departs by date specified, but is found by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) or the Immigration Judge (IJ) to have violated status. 作废
Alien admitted until specified date; violates status; departs after date specified. 作废
Alien admitted until specified date; stays beyond specified date; but granted voluntary departure (V/D). 作废
Alien admitted until specified date, found by USCIS or IJ to have violated status but is granted V/D; departs prior to both date on Form I-94, Arrival-Departure Record and date specified in V/D order. 作废
Alien admitted for duration of status (D/S), maintains status and departs. 不作废
Alien admitted for (D/S), violates status (not found in violation by USCIS or IJ). 不作废
Alien admitted for (D/S), found by USCIS or IJ in violation of status. 作废
Alien admitted for (D/S), found by USCIS or IJ in violation of status, granted voluntary departure. 作废
Alien admitted until specified date; applies for extension or change of status within applicable time limit prior to expiration of Form I-94; remains in U.S. after date on Form I-94; and application is subsequently approved. 不作废
Alien admitted until specified date; applies in timely fashion for extension or change of status, remains in U.S. after date on I-94 and application is subsequently denied. 作废
Alien admitted for D/S; applies in timely fashion for extension or change of status; application is subsequently denied for reasons other than status violation. 不作废
Alien admitted until specified date; submits a timely and non-frivolous application for extension or change of status; departs U.S. after expiration of Form I-94, but before a decision on the Form I-94 extension/change of status application. 不作废
Alien admitted until specified date; files late application for change or extension of status; USCIS accepts late application because alien established that filing was for good cause and otherwise satisfies the requirements for retroactive application; and application is ultimately approved: 不作废
Alien entered on Visa Waiver Program (VWP), on parole, without inspection, or otherwise without nonimmigrant visa, (NIV) regardless of whether alien overstays or violates status. 不作废

他们接着介绍:

If an alien files a timely and non-frivolous application for extension or change of status, and departs the United States after the date specified on the Form I-94 but while the application is pending, he or she will not be subject to 222(g) regardless of whether the application is ultimately approved. If the application is found to be frivolous, section 222(g) will apply.

只要你在 I-94 过期之前提交了 non-frivolous 的延期申请,并且在 case pending 期间离开,即 USCIS 尚未批准或拒绝,那么不管你离开之后 USCIS 是批准还是拒绝,都不会导致你的签证失效。但是,如果你的申请是 frivolous,则会导致签证失效。什么是 frivolous 呢?Merriam-Webster 解释:“having no sound basis” -- 无理取闹。

当然,我不知道 USCIS 如何解读“frivolous”;只要是正常、合理的延期申请应该就没有问题。

实际操作中,多位读者反映(如这位这位这位):申请人提前回国,USCIS 处理的时候、看到申请人已经离境,直接按实际离境日期批准了。比如说,I-94在3月1日到期,原定申请延期到9月1日,实际7月1日提前走了,USCIS 8月1日处理,看到申请人已经于7月1日离境,于是直接批准延期到7月1日、而不是9月1日。这从侧面印证:如果申请尚未批复之前离开美国,USCIS 处理的时候很可能就默认许可了。

读者 Allen 反映,他申请延期到7月底,申请人实际上于7月初提前离开、刚一离开他们就收到了 RFE;从时间线上看,RFE 的决定很有可能是申请人离境之前作出、只不过是在离境之后他们才收到邮件通知而已。

保留 USCIS 的文件

不管是何种情形,建议申请人保留 USCIS 收据(receipt)、处理结果、以及机票等离境证明,这样不管将来是要重新面签,还是入境的时候 CBP 官员问起,你都有记录,可证明你没有 overstay、或者虽有 overstay,但是有 pending case,不属于 unlawful presence。

B1/B2 延期待审期间是否可以申请转成学生身份?

我的分析是不可以。

若有亲身经验能证实或证伪我的分析。

如果说美国签证延期以后我们在美国的身份是灰色的。而且签证延期以后要是逗留在美国的话可能会有一些麻烦的。所以大家一定要在签证到期之前离开美国。

 

 

 

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